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Exercise improves learning

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Maybe our kids should start each school day with at least 20 minutes of aerobic exercise - it improves concentration, comprehension and learning.

This week CBC news (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation) put out a very interesting story about City Park High School in Saskatoon, that put treadmills and exercise bikes into a math classroom, and before doing any math, the kids strapped on their heart-rate monitors and did 20 minutes of moderate intensity cardiovascular exercise. This is an alternative school for those with learning difficulties, and over half the students have ADHD. They couldn't sit still, many had behavioural problems, and they couldn't learn. Well, the cardio equipment went in the classroom in February, and by June, pretty much all the kids had jumped a full grade in reading, writing and math. After doing the exercise the kids were suddenly able to sit still and focus on what they were learning, and they were able to understand what they were being taught. The exercise altered their brain chemistry enough to make learning possible, AND it greatly improved their behaviour.

With physical education frequently being cut out of curriculums to make time for academics, this should give pause for thought. Taking 20 to 40 minutes a day for sustained physical activity improves learning and grades in academic subjects more than actually using that time for the academic subjects themselves. Sustained aerobic exercise of between 65 to 75% of one's max heart rate wakes up the frontal cortex of the brain, the part that is needed for behavioural control. (To figure out your child's correct heart-rate zone, subtract his/her age from 220, and take 65 to 75% of that to get the target heart beats per minute.) Exercise causes the brain to create more nerve cells (neurogenesis), makes those nerves stronger, and helps them withstand stress, and improves neurotransmitter function, which helps the brain work better. Dr. Ratey, one of the key researchers in this area, noted not only improvements in those with ADHD, but also in those with bipolar disorder and schitzophrenia as well.

Alison Cameron, the grade 8 teacher at City Park School, noted that between February and June, the attention span of her students increased from 10 minutes to 3 hours. Many of the kids got off ritalin, and the kids were coming to school every day so she had the opportunity to actually teach them, which also improved learning. The students reported feeling happier, less angry, and definitely smarter, which improved their confidence levels, and made them realize that they would be capable of succeeding in life if they applied themselves.

In this day and age where we are moving less and less, sitting at the computer more and more, and children are less frequently allowed outside to play on their own, we need to ensure that kids get daily physical education, and beyond that, we need to make sure that every child and teen is actually moving enough during PE. In most PE classes, 80% of the kids are standing around waiting for their turn, or simply trying to avoid participating. It takes at least 20 minutes of sustained activity three times a week to make the difference in behavioural and academic performance, and that should be an important focus of school PE class in my opinion.

We are meant to move, and if we don't we are not as resilient and we can't use our brains maximally. So parents, if you want your kids to be smarter and better behaved and your school does not provide adequate movement time for your kids, perhaps family-based physical activity should become a priority. Creating the exercise habit young will also help them maintain a healthy body weight, and set them up for a life of good health.

If you would like to see the CBC documentary, click here. I think it is an amazing, hopeful story.

If you want to search for other posts by title or by topic, go to www.wellnesstips.ca.

Related Posts:

Heart-rate training
Our bodies are meant to move!
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Joan Leishman Brain Gains CBC News.

Ratey John MD. SPARK - The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain Little, Brown and Company, New York NY, 2008.

Jacob Sattelmair and John J. Ratey Physically Active Play and Cognition. An Academic Matter? Exercise Revolution - The new science of exercise and the brain., John J Ratey blog.

Hobson, Katherine How exercise revs up your brain US News, April 17, 2008

PE4Life - Building Healthy Studen Bodies - One at a Time A U.S. organization dedicated to inspiring active, healthy living by advancing the development of quality, daily physical education programs for all children.

Buck SM et al. The relation of aerobic fitness to stroop task performance in preadolescent children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 Jan;40(1):166-72.

Hillman CH et al. Aerobic fitness and cognitive development: Event-related brain potential and task performance indices of executive control in preadolescent children. Dev Psychol. 2009 Jan;45(1):114-29.

van Praag H. Exercise and the brain: something to chew on. Trends Neurosci. 2009 Apr 4. [Epub ahead of print]

Ploughman M. Exercise is brain food: the effects of physical activity on cognitive function. Dev Neurorehabil. 2008 Jul-Sep;11(3):236-40.

Reynolds D, Nicolson RI. Follow-up of an exercise-based treatment for children with reading difficulties.
Dyslexia. 2007 May;13(2):78-96.

Schneider S et al. EEG activity and mood in health orientated runners after different exercise intensities. Physiol Behav. 2009 Mar 23;96(4-5):709-16.

Bugg JM, Head D. Exercise moderates age-related atrophy of the medial temporal lobe. Neurobiol Aging. 2009 Apr 20. [Epub ahead of print]

Smiley-Oyen AL et al. Exercise, fitness, and neurocognitive function in older adults: the "selective improvement" and "cardiovascular fitness" hypotheses. Ann Behav Med. 2008 Dec;36(3):280-91. Epub 2008 Sep 30.

Copyright 2009 Vreni Gurd

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